Located in central Asia, Turkmenistan shares borders with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Iran. Turkmenistan also has a western coastline on the Caspian Sea. 80% of the land is desert.


Population: 5 million (2013 est.)
Ethnic Groups: Turkmen - 85%, Uzbek - 5%, Russian - 4%, other - 6%
Languages: Turkmen (official) - 72%, Russian - 12%, Uzbek - 9%, other - 7%
Religions: 89%, Eastern Orthodox - 9%, unknown - 2%


Turkmen Population:
In Canada: 55,430
In the GTA: 19,855

Turkmens have had a nomadic tribal past, but when it was made part of the Soviet Union, their property was confiscated and traditions eliminated. Turkmenistan became independent from the Soviet Union in 1992 and elected a new president in 2007 when the Communist leader died. This change provides hope that Turkmenistan will finally be able to repair its healthcare system and infrastructure, and that it will become a more open country. Although the constitution guarantees religious freedom, the reality is completely different. Sunni Islam and Russian Orthodoxy are the only two legal religions. Gatherings of other religious groups (including other forms of Islam) are forbidden, and many mosques have been shut down in the last fifteen years or so for operating without approval from the state.

Map of Services and Churches in the GTA: 

Social and Settlement Services in the GTA


Visa Application Center Toronto
1000 Finch Ave. W. 
Suite 900, Toronto
ON, M3J 2V5


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Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. (2011, October 15). Cultural Information - Turkmenistan. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from

Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. (2011, December 15). Overview - Turkmenistan. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from

Mandryk, J. (2010). Operation World: The Definitive Prayer Guide to Every Nation (7th ed.). Colorado Springs: Biblica Publishing.

Prayercast. (n.d.). Turkmenistan. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from

Statistics Canada. (2011, April 7). 2006 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations/Ethnic Origin, Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses and
Sex for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample
Data. Retrieved July 15, 2014, from

Turkmens. (2009). In T. L. Gall & J. Hobby (Eds.), Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life (2nd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 998-1004). Detroit: Gale. 
Retrieved July 16, 2014, from